- Check price for Linares 26 Bar Stool by Birch Lane™ Heritage get it to day. stack: stat: he statistical transformation to use on the data for this layer. Ouma and Jung U. 2 setosa ## 2 4. Low Density (LD) trash bags are strong, flexible and highly resistant to puncturing and tearing. Together they are key factors in your carpet’s look and feel, and they also influence its resilience and durability. They are ideal for kitchen trash, construction debris or trash that includes glass, metal, wood, cardboard or irregularly shaped items. Divecha and Brian E. draw ( grob ). Rによる美しいグラフの作成に欠かせないパッケージ "ggplot2" ですが、 グラフ作成のたびにネット検索したり自分の以前のコードを掘り起こしたりしませんか？. Devito 2 Piece Living Room Set by Darby Home Co Online. Learn more at tidyverse. ggplot likes to work on data frames and we have a matrix, so let’s fix that first. ggplot(avg_price) + geom_col(aes(x = cut, y = price_rel, fill = color)) The overall ordering cannot necessarily be matched in the presence of negative values, but the ordering on either side of the x-axis will match. graphics::barplot provides a flexability of different class/format of input; And this is good, in general; Ineed, all plotting function in graphics provide more or less flexability about the input data. What is ggplot2 ## Sepal. 2ch 822: http://uni. This R tutorial describes how to change line types of a graph generated using ggplot2 package. Learn more at tidyverse. There is a beanplot package for R, but ggplot2 does not include a geom specifically for this. Line width in ggplot2 can be changed with argument size= in geom_line(). The playwith package provides a graphical user interface to customize the graphs, add a title, a grid, some text, etc and it exports the R code you need if you want to replicate the analysis. Learn R - How to Create Multiple Density Plots Using GGPlot - DZone Big Data / Big Data Zone. ggplot graphics are built step by step by adding new elements. 3 out of 5 stars 12 $9. We can color the heat map with the viridis colorblind-friendly palettes just introduced into ggplot2. fill: fill colour colour: border colour size: border size linetype: border linetype color: an alias for 'colour' element_text. Create ggplot2 Histogram in R (7 Examples) | geom_histogram Function. If FALSE, the default, each density is computed on the full range of the data. ggplot2: Controlling width of line. ggplot2 Quickref Basics tasks. geom_point. Klemmmarkise Markise Sonnenschutz Grün-Beige Gestell Weiss NEU/OVP,MacCourt 20 Gallon Black High Density Polyethylene Pond Liner Smooth Non Toxic 39694261558,15x Ersatzteil Verbinder für 3x6m Gartenpavillon Gartenlaube Eckstück 32/25/19mm. Creating plots in R using ggplot2 - part 7: histograms written February 28, 2016 in r , ggplot2 , r graphing tutorials This is the seventh tutorial in a series on using ggplot2 I am creating with Mauricio Vargas Sepúlveda. number of points. You can also make histograms by using ggplot2 , “a plotting system for R, based on the grammar of graphics” that was created by Hadley Wickham. Often you are interested in just putting plots besides or on top of each other. In a line graph, observations are ordered by x value and connected. This course, the first R data visualization tutorial in the series, introduces you to the principles of good visualizations and the grammar of graphics plotting concepts implemented in the ggplot2 package. Common plots Points. on-line searching has currently gone a protracted manner; it's modified the way customers and entrepreneurs do business these day. density: bool, optional. One of the key ideas behind ggplot2 is that it allows you to easily iterate, building up a complex plot a layer at a time. Name Description; position: Position adjustments to points. Low Density (LD) trash bags are strong, flexible and highly resistant to puncturing and tearing. 2 setosa ## 3 4. The density ridgeline plot is an alternative to the standard geom_density() function that can be useful for visualizing changes in distributions, of a continuous variable, over time or space. $ The density curve of the distribution $\mathsf{Norm}(100, 15)$ is also shown superimposed on the histogram. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *. I use the "barley" dataset of the lattice package to illustrate my problem:. Density plot line colors can be automatically controlled by the levels of sex: # Change density plot. Smoothed, conditional summaries are easy to add to plots in ggplot2. , if you want all points to be squares, or all lines to be dashed), or they can be conditioned on a variable. Specifying any two of the quantities determines the third. Name Description; position: Position adjustments to points. Be Awesome in ggplot2: A Practical Guide to be Highly Effective - R software and data visualization Basics ggplot2 is a powerful and a flexible R package , implemented by Hadley Wickham , for producing elegant graphics. Make histograms in R based on the grammar of graphics. ) I Words: Most people hardly think that there is a difference between "weight" and "mass" and it wasn't until we started our exploration of space that is was possible for the average person to experience, even indirectly, what it must mean to be "weightless". This R tutorial describes how to create a density plot using R software and ggplot2 package. Use a density plot when you know that the underlying density is smooth, continuous and unbounded. However, it’s not a useful chart since all the points are opaque and we’re not sure what the spatial density of points is. A person's curl type is only part of the equation to determine Texture Type. Developed by Hadley Wickham , Winston Chang, Lionel Henry, Thomas Lin Pedersen, Kohske Takahashi, Claus Wilke, Kara Woo, Hiroaki Yutani. Contribute to tidyverse/ggplot2 development by creating an account on GitHub. 1 6 225 105 2. Many of the examples were redundant or clearly a poor choice for this particular data; the purpose was to demonstrate the capabilities of ggplot2 and show what options are available. tex, a unit of measure for the linear density of fibers, defined as the mass in grams per 1,000 meters; denier, a unit of measure for the linear density of fibers, defined as the mass in grams per 9,000 meters; decitex (dtex), the SI unit for the linear density of fibers, defined as the mass in grams per 10,000 meters; See also. This is a 2d version of geom_density(). R - ggplot line color (using geom_line) doesn't change. If FALSE, the default, each density is computed on the full range of the data. This page describes stat\_density2d, see layer and qplot for how to create a complete plot from individual components. To use this calculator, enter the appropriate width, length, and thickness of this application. Explain why changing an object's mass or volume does not affect its density (ie, understand density as an intensive property). ggplot2 is a system for declaratively creating graphics, based on The Grammar of Graphics. You will learn how to: 1) Create basic and grouped line plots; 2) Add points to a line plot; 3) Change the line types and colors by group. I'd like to make (a) the fitted line thicker and (b) change the background fill color for the confidence envelope around each fitted line to a low-alpha transparent version of. rm = TRUE ) + xlim ( 58 , 68 ) + theme ( legend. Dear R-users, i encountered some problems when trying to adjust the line width of the axes and stripes in a plot created with ggplot2. A geom that draws a vertical line defined by an x-axis intercept. This R tutorial describes how to change line types of a graph generated using ggplot2 package. geom\_histogram is an alias for geom\_bar + stat\_bin so you will need to look at the documentation for those objects to get more information about the parameters. Why geom_density is showing me values higher than 1 in the density plot? R: geom_density values in y-axis [duplicate] Browse other questions tagged r ggplot2. In this article, we’ll show you exactly how to make a simple ggplot histogram, show you how to modify it, explain how it can be used, and more. For the 2p to 1s transition in hydrogen, we've calculated a decay rate of per second. In ggplot2 is an easy-to-learn structure for R graphics code. Length by y = Sepal. uk is Applications Engineering - switches, transducers valves and sensors. Line types in R The different line types available in R software are : “blank”, “solid”, “dashed”, “dotted”, “dotdash”, “longdash”, “twodash”. #Kernel Density Plot for mpg (miles per gallon) #grouped by number of gears Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn. Creating plots in R using ggplot2 - part 1: line plots written December 15, 2015 in r,ggplot2,r graphing tutorials Adjusting line width. 3 of the observations. Line types in R The different line types available in R software are : “blank”, “solid”, “dashed”, “dotted”, “dotdash”, “longdash”, “twodash”. 2 setosa ## 2 4. This page shows how to create histograms with the ggplot2 package in R programming. R Package: ggplot2 Used to produce statistical graphics, author = Hadley Wickham "attempt to take the good things about base and lattice graphics and improve on them with a strong, underlying model ". 4 6 258 110 3. Graphical Primitives Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet RStudio® is a trademark of RStudio, Inc. We can separately measure the mass Mand the volume V of the object and then compute density as M=V. Rによる美しいグラフの作成に欠かせないパッケージ "ggplot2" ですが、 グラフ作成のたびにネット検索したり自分の以前のコードを掘り起こしたりしませんか？. This shows one of the strengths of ggplot. In this tutorial we will demonstrate some of the many options the ggplot2 package has for creating and customising density plots. At least it works this way with geom_density and I had the same problem. The histogram is plotted with density instead of count on y-axis Overlay with transparent density. Dynaudio's C2 is part of their new Confidence series, which is in turn a result of the cascading technology from the flagship Evidence line. In the graph above, we used the default width. As this line shape approaches a delta function,. Usually, geom_abline is used to add a line to data shown in other layers (e. Linares 26 Bar Stool by Birch Lane™ Heritage Best Buy. Default statistic: stat_vline Default position adjustment: position_identity. tex, a unit of measure for the linear density of fibers, defined as the mass in grams per 1,000 meters; denier, a unit of measure for the linear density of fibers, defined as the mass in grams per 9,000 meters; decitex (dtex), the SI unit for the linear density of fibers, defined as the mass in grams per 10,000 meters; See also. Most often used for backgrounds and borders. In a previous blog post , you learned how to make histograms with the hist() function. Learn R – How to Create Multiple Density Plots Using GGPlot - DZone Big Data / Big Data Zone. Length Petal. Graphs with more variables. You can also add a line for the mean using the function geom_vline. But the line stays clear red. There is a beanplot package for R, but ggplot2 does not include a geom specifically for this. This black PU leather bed adds a measure of modern sophistication and elegance to your bedroom. And then I'll finish off with a brief illustration of how you can apply functional programming techniques to ggplot2 objects. This R tutorial describes how to create a histogram plot using R software and ggplot2 package. Good Discount Price Georgia Pacific GP 59209 Translucent Smoke Jumbo Jr Two Roll Bathroom Tissue Dispenser 20 02 Width X 12 26 Height X 5 67 Depth 3 PACK Today To Bring A High End Really feel To Your Home!, Complete all of those other space with beautiful Georgia Pacific GP 59209 Translucent Smoke Jumbo Jr Two Roll Bathroom Tissue Dispenser 20 02 Width X 12 26 Height X 5 67 Depth 3 PACK, You. To use this calculator, enter the appropriate width, length, and thickness of this application. A Brief Introduction to Graphics with ggplot2 November 6, 2017 Introduction The ggplot2 package allows you to build very complex graphs layer by layer. mdf; super refined 2 mdf; del-tin mdf; utility mdf; mdf other sizes; ultra lite mdf; color thru mdf; melamine solid. The algorithm used in density. Hundreds of charts are displayed in several sections, always with their reproducible code available. Package ggplot2. In comparison with ggplot2, ggvis is much younger and some utilities may be yet to come, also data don't need to come from a data frame object. Get the feeling of laying your head down each night in an upscale five star hotel room. Parameters. If True, the first element of the return tuple will be the counts normalized to form a probability density, i. 25 Console Table by Wrought Studio™ >>>Low price for Ricardo 47. ggplot( diamonds , aes( carat )) + geom_density( fill = " red " , colour = " red " , alpha = 0. Change labels on the axes. Creating plots in R using ggplot2 - part 7: histograms written February 28, 2016 in r , ggplot2 , r graphing tutorials This is the seventh tutorial in a series on using ggplot2 I am creating with Mauricio Vargas Sepúlveda. This parameter only matters if you are displaying multiple densities in one plot. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. If TRUE, each density is computed over the range of that group: this typically means the estimated x values will not line-up, and hence you won't be able to stack density values. ggplot2 Quickref Basics tasks. This is achieved by dividing the count by the number of observations times the bin width and not dividing by the total number of observations. The R ggplot2 Histogram is very useful to visualize the statistical information, that can be organized in specified bins (breaks, or range). The default is to use bins bins that cover the range of the data. Data derived from ToothGrowth data sets are used. #sample data df<-data. There are 7,497 watercolor paintings, 87 line drawings, and 79 wax models created by approximately 21 artists. I'd like to make (a) the fitted line thicker and (b) change the background fill color for the confidence envelope around each fitted line to a low-alpha transparent version of. Santa Loves Power BI and R 2016-12-23 Mike Carlo 3. These are methods for objects of class "histogram", typically produced by hist. If FALSE, the default, each density is computed on the full range of the data. If I were creating these plots for a publication, I would also want to add labels (e. This can be seen by setting trim=FALSE :. Basic plot setup color and boundary thickness. Geoms - Use a geom function to represent data points, use the geom's aesthetic properties to represent variables. 2 setosa ## 2 4. secure now for the antipodal cut of Woodford Slipper Chair by Simpli Home with shop nearby your home. with geom_point ()). For geom_vline, whether or not one uses the default statistic (stat_vline) or the "do nothing" statistic (stat_identity), the available parameters and their meanings stay the same. Goal Supremacy Rating (GSR) is a well-known tool to many punters when it comes to evaluating odds for football games. ggplot2 is a part of the tidyverse, an ecosystem of packages designed with common APIs and a shared philosophy. This is achieved by dividing the count by the number of observations times the bin width and not dividing by the total number of observations. This can be useful for dealing with overplotting. You can also make histograms by using ggplot2 , "a plotting system for R, based on the grammar of graphics" that was created by Hadley Wickham. In a previous blog post , you learned how to make histograms with the hist() function. rm = TRUE ) + xlim ( 58 , 68 ) + theme ( legend. The American. It provides a more programmatic interface for specifying what variables to plot, how they are displayed, and general visual properties. But the line stays clear red. Contribute to tidyverse/ggplot2 development by creating an account on GitHub. A low nicotine e-cig contains no nicotine, low density e-liquid contains 6 mg cigarette smoking, medium density contains doze mg nicotine, high thickness has 18 mg smoking, XHigh density has twenty-four mg nicotine, XXHigh. Enter the dimensions of your shipment (in inches or cm if metric is selected). You can also add a line for the mean using the function geom_vline. A geom that draws a horizontal line defined by an y-axis intercept. Here is a summary of this data set. Perform a 2D kernel density estimation using MASS::kde2d() and display the results with contours. For geom_vline, whether or not one uses the default statistic (stat_vline) or the "do nothing" statistic (stat_identity), the available parameters and their meanings stay the same. identity: stat: he statistical transformation to use on the data for this layer. Make histograms in R based on the grammar of graphics. (1998) Violin Plots: A Box Plot-Density Trace Synergism. geom_line in ggplot2 How to make line plots in ggplot2 with geom_line. Moved Permanently. However, it’s not a useful chart since all the points are opaque and we’re not sure what the spatial density of points is. Plotting a histogram using hist from the graphics package is pretty straightforward, but what if you want to view the density plot on top of the histogram? This combination of graphics can help us compare the distributions of groups. Probability Density Function. This made sense in considering a speci c object of uniform composition. edu) Lastupdate: 23May,2018 Overview Graphics in R. ggplot2 functions like data in the 'long' format, i. Dear R-users, i encountered some problems when trying to adjust the line width of the axes and stripes in a plot created with ggplot2. This usually happens when your data is already pre-summarized or when each line of your data frame has to be plotted separately. Probability density functions for continuous random variables. We can color the heat map with the viridis colorblind-friendly palettes just introduced into ggplot2. Basic plot setup color and boundary thickness. You can use the adjust parameter to make the density more or less smooth. In this article we will show you, How to Create a ggplot line plot, Format its colors, add points to line plot with example. Basically the density of e-liquid present in the cartridge will be based upon the kind of e cig the smoker chooses. rm = TRUE ) + xlim ( 58 , 68 ) + theme ( legend. Histogram and density plots. The function geom_density() is used. ggplot - change line width. I was trying out some code for implementing a basic qplot() on the inbuilt 'mtcars' dataset in R. For this section we are going to use the venerable iris dataset that was used by Anderson (1935) and Fisher (1936). Introduction to ggridges Claus O. Length Petal. Linares 26 Bar Stool by Birch Lane™ Heritage Best Buy. bin | identity. com: Industrial & Scientific. com • 844-448-1212 • rstudio. ggplot2: Controlling width of line. Adjust the R line thickness by specifying the options lwd (base plot) and size (ggplot2). The algorithm used in density disperses the mass of the empirical distribution function over a regular grid of at least 512 points and then uses the fast Fourier transform to convolve this approximation with a discretized version of the kernel and then uses linear approximation to evaluate the density at the specified points. However, when I try to modify the line size, I seem to. secure now for the antipodal cut of Woodford Slipper Chair by Simpli Home with shop nearby your home. The group means would have to be computed and stored in a separate data frame, and the easiest way to do this is to use the dplyr package. The playwith package provides a graphical user interface to customize the graphs, add a title, a grid, some text, etc and it exports the R code you need if you want to replicate the analysis. Default statistic: stat_vline Default position adjustment: position_identity. Thanks Fran. 3 out of 5 stars 12 $9. With a little math which is described on the fluid momentum page, we can show that the aerodynamic forces are directly proportional to the density of the fluid that flows by the airfoil. A geom that draws a vertical line defined by an x-axis intercept. If you have many data points, or if your data scales are discrete, then the data points might overlap and it will be impossible to see if there are many points at the same location. It provides a more programmatic interface for specifying what variables to plot, how they are displayed, and general visual properties. ggplot2 has become the go-to tool for flexible and professional plots in R. Hakan HACIBEKIROGLU Senguler Tourism Co Ltd Agency Licence ( A ) 4691 Adress : Ishak Pasa Caddesi No:6 Floor:1 Sultanahmet Istanbul / TURKEY Tel : +90 212 638 12 15 Fax: +90 212 6. Length Petal. Thanks to some great new packages like dplyr, tidyr and magrittr (as well as the less-new ggplot2) I've been able to streamline code and speed up processing. • Plotting with graphic packages in R ( ggplot2) • Visualizing data by different types of graphs in R (scatter plot, line graph, bar graph, histogram, boxplot, pie chart, venn diagram, correlation plot, heatmap) • Generate polished graph for publication and presentation. class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # ggplot2 ### Colin Rundel ### 2019-02-12 --- exclude: true --- ## ggplot2. Varying line width with ggplot2 Raw. This can be seen by setting trim=FALSE :. An estimate is also made of the 'distributed' gas density which confines the cosmic rays to the disk. (1998) Violin Plots: A Box Plot-Density Trace Synergism. When I draw a chart with alpha, I expect that the whole layer, the line and fill, will become transparent. ggplot specific thick line. ggplot (d) + aes (x = age, y = heures. size = 1 in geom_density did the trick. Columnar density. [R] ggplot2 의 커널 밀도 곡선(Kernel Density Curve)의 최대 피크값 좌표구하고 수직선 추가하기 (2) 2019. To change the line width. The Mil count of. Hundreds of charts are displayed in several sections, always with their reproducible code available. The document has moved here. aes = TRUE (the default), is combined with the default mapping at the top level of the plot. Simple Linear Regression Example: Body density Aim: Measure body density (weight per unit volume of the body) (Body density indicates the fat content of the human body. If TRUE, each density is computed over the range of that group: this typically means the estimated x values will not line-up, and hence you won't be able to stack density values. Otherwise, the concept is the same as we saw in the data processing section. ★McLellen 5 Piece Dining Set by Winston Porter™ >>>Check price for McLellen 5 Piece Dining Set by Winston Porter get it to day. Linares 26 Bar Stool by Birch Lane™ Heritage Best Buy. ## Warning: position_stack requires constant width: output may be incorrect Density plots give a continuous estimate to the distribution. The following aesthetics can be used with stat\_density2d. • CC BY RStudio •

[email protected] 3$ of the observations. ggplot2 will be useful for producing complex graphics relatively simply. ggplot2: Controlling line width of panel borders. ggplot2は「グラフィクス文法」という考えに基づ いており、どのグラフもデータセット、geomセット 、座標系という同じコンポーネント群から作られる。. qplot(1:length(rollingMean), rollingMean, xlab ="Week Number") + geom_line() If we want to use the ‘ggplot’ function then we need to put everything into a data frame first and then plot it:. class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # ggplot2 ### Colin Rundel ### 2019-02-12 --- exclude: true --- ## ggplot2. 61 1 1 4 1 Hornet 4 Drive 21. 2 setosa ## 4 4. The Oklahoma Sound PRA-8000-PRA-5 Pro Audio 40 Watt PA System comes complete with 10" speaker, 4" tweeter, and handheld wireless microphone. Linear densities are usually used for long thin objects such as strings for musical instruments. 0 6 160 110 3. For the last few years if I wanted to arrange plots created by ggplot2 into a grid, I would use either the multiplot() function from the Cookbook for R or the arrange_ggplot2() function from Stephen Turner's blog Getting Genetics Done. ggplot graphics are built step by step by adding new elements. - Check price for Linares 26 Bar Stool by Birch Lane™ Heritage get it to day. This chart is a combination of a Box Plot and a Density Plo that is rotated and placed on each side, to show the distribution shape of the data. #Kernel Density Plot for mpg (miles per gallon) #grouped by number of gears Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn. 3 out of 5 stars 12 $9. In the above example, color is mapped to a discrete variable, Species, that takes 3 values. In a line plot, observations are ordered by x value and connected by a line. ★Rosaline Reversible Sectional By Orren Ellis™ Low price for Rosaline Reversible Sectional By Orren Ellis check price to day. Moved Permanently. An alternative to a bin-based visualisation is a density estimate. , Nelson, R. It turns out ggplot generates its own color palettes depending on the scale of the variable that color is mapped to. Goal Supremacy Rating (GSR) is a well-known tool to many punters when it comes to evaluating odds for football games. Or copy & paste this link into an email or IM:. Here is a summary of this data set. In a line graph, observations are ordered by x value and connected. size = 1 in geom_density did the trick. The R ggplot2 package is useful to plot different types of charts, and graphs, but it is also important to save those charts. If you're still unfamiliar with how to create a line chart with ggplot2, you can read our detailed tutorial about ggplot line charts. stack: stat: he statistical transformation to use on the data for this layer. - Check price for Quance Reclining Configurable Living Room Set by Winston Porter get it to day. Theme element: line. Graphs with more variables. For geom_vline, whether or not one uses the default statistic (stat_vline) or the "do nothing" statistic (stat_identity), the available parameters and their meanings stay the same. medium density fiberboard. You will learn how to: 1) Create basic and grouped line plots; 2) Add points to a line plot; 3) Change the line types and colors by group. Length Sepal. A low nicotine e-cig contains no nicotine, low density e-liquid contains 6 mg cigarette smoking, medium density contains doze mg nicotine, high thickness has 18 mg smoking, XHigh density has twenty-four mg nicotine, XXHigh. geom_density() places a little normal distribution at each data point and sums up all the curves. graphics::barplot provides a flexability of different class/format of input; And this is good, in general; Ineed, all plotting function in graphics provide more or less flexability about the input data. uk IP is 162. Mass,Weight and, Density (Remember, when we make a statement and enclose it in parenthesis, nothing will be lost if you ignore it. on-line looking has currently gone an extended means; it's modified the way shoppers and entrepreneurs do business nowadays. An implementation of the Grammar of Graphics in R. r # First, let's make up some dummy data # I assume your data is 3 columns: year, the x scale between. If specified and inherit. Probability Density Function. 03 [R] ggplot2로 bin 범위가 다른 히스토그램 그리기 (histogram with different bin width using R ggplot2) (0) 2019. rm(list = ls()); gc(reset = T) # ----- if(!require(ggplot2)){install. A Brief Introduction to Graphics with ggplot2 November 6, 2017 Introduction The ggplot2 package allows you to build very complex graphs layer by layer. This parameter only matters if you are displaying multiple densities in one plot. However, when I try to modify the line size, I seem to. ggplot graphics are built step by step by adding new elements. Aesthetics. The function geom_density() is used. Plot two lines and modify automatically the line style for base plots and ggplot by groups. Linear mass density is the amount of mass per unit length. ggplot - change line width. You will learn how to: 1) Create basic and grouped line plots; 2) Add points to a line plot; 3) Change the line types and colors by group. Carpet density is basically a combination of height and thickness. Dennis, yes I did mean line thickness. The Base R graphics toolset will get you started, but if you really want to shine at visualization, it's a good idea to learn ggplot2. This makes it easy to see overall trends and explore visually how different models fit the data. You can also add a line for the mean using the function geom_vline. • CC BY RStudio •

[email protected] class: center, middle, inverse, title-slide # the ggplot flipbook ## made with xaringan ### Gina Reynolds ### 2019/01/31 ---